Did you know that Texas has a kangaroo rat with its name-sake? Texas kangaroo rat is a fitting name as this is the largest of the five kangaroo rat species found in the state. The Texas kangaroo rat is the only species found in its historic range with a long, thick, white-tipped tail. Kangaroo rats are unusual for rats when it comes to their appearance (furry tail) and movement patterns. They hop on their back feet like kangaroos, and when males battle each other they jump at their opponents with their back feet using their back toes as weapons.
The Texas kangaroo rat (Dipodomys elator) is only known to occur in a relatively small region historically, where the Great Plains prairie meets the Rolling Plains. Its historic habitat is encompassed by a 15-county area in north-central Texas starting at the base of the panhandle and extending east along the Red River, including a small area of southern Oklahoma. The Texas kangaroo rat is considered to be the only mammal endemic to this region.
Because so little is known about this species, and the data we do have indicates a decline in population, the Texas kangaroo rat is considered a Species of Greatest Conservation Need in the Texas Conservation Action Plan and is listed as a state threatened species by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD). Research surveys conducted in 2002 documented their occurrence in only five of 15 counties. When those five counties were surveyed again in 2011, none were found (note: that was a year of exceptional drought). In 2009, Wild Earth Guardians petitioned the species for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is in the process of conducting a 12-month review and will examine all available data (best available science) to determine whether the need to list this species as threatened or endangered is warranted.
In order to gain much-needed information about the current status, distribution and habitat needs, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) is funding a research project with Texas State University that will begin this fall. The Texas Comptroller’s Office is also funding a research project that Texas Tech University is currently conducting which includes examining genetic health and population status. In addition to these two research projects, a researcher from Tarleton State University received Section 6 funds through TPWD last year to evaluate the genetic structure of this species from museum specimens that is currently ongoing. The combined results of these three research projects will provide a better understanding of the current status, habitat needs and reasons for its decline, and will help identify management actions needed to protect and enhance populations of this unique Texas species. The data yielded from these three studies will provide the most current data to be included with historical research data as “best available science” for USFWS to consider, along with consideration of any and all conservation efforts in place to protect this species, before a final listing determination is made.
In September 2015, researchers from Texas State University met with TPWD Wildlife Division staff and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) agents who work directly with landowners in the counties within the Texas kangaroo rat’s current and historic range to discuss research needs. The goals of that meeting was to help prepare TPWD biologists and other natural resource professionals to inform landowners about funded-research efforts, explain what providing access to private lands for research would entail, explain the role landowners can play to help reduce the need for listing the species, and to explain what it could mean to the landowner if this species is listed in the future.
Working with private landowners is the key to success in conservation and protecting this and many other rare species in Texas. Our best chance at reducing the need for federal protection of rare species is through developing partnerships with landowners willing to provide access to private property for field investigations and willing to voluntarily implement best management practices to benefit this species. The lesser prairie chicken and dune sage brush lizard are two examples of rare species in Texas that have realized the benefits of partnering with landowners through conservation agreements. Such partnerships and agreements successfully influenced USFWS listing decisions through the voluntary protections provided to those species occurring on private lands, and thus reduced the need for federal oversight. Let’s continue to work together proactively to protect the biodiversity of Texas that we value so greatly.